COLOR STONE LEARNING GUIDE


While selecting a color gemstone, the basic principle of 4 c’s is considered as primary in identifying a good quality gemstone. The 4 c’s stands for Color, Clarity, Cut and Carat weight. A clean, lustrous and good cut is the important price indicator. The art of cutting and pollishing a gemstone is called lapidary. Jaipur in India is a well known lapidary center for colorstones. Different techniques are adopted to cut and polish stones belonging to different gemstone families, grades and sizes. The hardness of a gemstone is measured in moh's scale. Specialised diamond tools and semi automated machines are used to cut and polish color gemstones.
Color
According to the standards, the color is further segmented as Hue, Saturation and Tone. Strong hue with good saturation levels is a measure of identifying a good color gemstone. In color gemstones even a slight variation in all the color sub-segments makes a difference in price. The selection of color and the tone varies from individuals and many a times depends upon the preferred costumes. Each category of gemstone has its own range of hues, saturation levels and tones.
Clarity
A significant factor for pricing of a color stone is its clarity. A stone with good color and clarity is priced higher. Inclusions in color gemstone are quite different from diamonds. They vary from stone categories. In color-stones there is no standard system for grading of clarity. There are many stones, which always have inclusions, but the art of lapidary captivates the color and clarity to gives it a perfect look when viewed from the table of the stone. Gemstones from the corundum family like sapphire and ruby and emerald from the beryl family are rarely clear. They are mostly translucent and have many feathers and wire mesh like inclusions. Semi precious gemstones from the quartz family are usually clear with high transparency level. There are certain stones in which we find an eye line formation and star formation. This phenomenon is due to the density, inclusions and the saturation level of the stone. The eye line formation is mostly found in chrysoberyl. The star formation is generally found in stones like black star, star ruby and a few other varieties of stones.
Cut
This is the most important aspect a lapidary artist (gem cutter) takes care of which adds the brilliance and the scintillation effect. The cut and the facets given to the stone is a deciding factor in grading a finished gemstone. Certain cuts are quite difficult as it involves lots of precision in captivating the color and luster of the stone. Such stones are priced more.
Carat Weight
This is a measure of the weight of gemstone. Good quality bigger stones of more carat weight are priced much more than the smaller stones with less carat weight.
Lapidary of Gemstones
Lapidary is an art of cutting and polishing of gemstones. Gemstone making indeed is a very interesting art. Jaipur is one of major centers for cutting and polishing of colored gemstones. The artisans use diamond tools and their skill to hold the stone in the perfect angle to add facets so that there is maximum light reflection from the table. Now a days the semi automated machines has increased the production levels mainly in the semi precious category and for those stones whose hardness is more in the mohs scale. But in the case of emeralds even today the best of the craftsman use the traditional techniques of cutting and polishing by hand. The angle of the rough stone is very important in precious gemstones as they are rare and the grading of rough is quite difficult. The best pieces lapidered are priced better because the labour to cut them is high and the availability is less.

List of Color Gemstones

Precious Category Semi precious Category
Diamond
Sapphire
Emerald
Ruby
Opal
Topaz
Garnet
Aquamarine
Alexandrite
Tanzanite
Spinel
Semi precious Category
Zircon
Tourmaline
Kunzite
Amethyst
Green Amethyst
Citrine
Peridot
Iolite
Onyx
Turquoise
Goshenite
Morganite
Heliodore
Bixbite
Golden Beryl
Chrysoberyl Cat’s-Eye
Hiddenite
Smoky Quartz
Prasiolite
Rose Quartz
Aventurine
Prase
Blue Quartz
Quartz Cat’s-Eye
Hawk’s-Eye
Tiger’s-Eye
Carnelian
Sard
Chrysoprase
Bloodstone
Agate
Jasper
Fire Opal
Jade
Jadeite
Nephrite
Zoisite
Thulite
Anyolite
Hematite
Pyrite
Feldspar
Amazonite
Moonstone
Orthoclase
Labradorite
Spectrolite
Rhodochrosite
Rhodonite
Fowlerite
Achroite
Amber
Almandite
Ametrine
Ammolite

Lapis Lazuli
Sodalite
Azurite
Burnite
Malachite
Eilat Stone
Andalusite
Euclase
Hambergite
Phenakite
Danburite
Axinite
Benitoite
Cassiterite
Epidote
Idocrase
Sinhalite
Kornerupine
Prehnite
Petalite
Beryllonite
Brazilianite
Amblygonite
Enstatite
Bronzite
Lazulite
Dioptase
Apatite
Sphene
Kyanite
Scheelite
Variscite
Fluorite
Bastite
Bowenite
Marcasite
Moissanite
Moldavite
Morion
Obsidian
Olivine
Pectolite
Plushstone
Proustite
Pyrope
Rhodizite
Rhodolite
Rubellite
Rutile
Sardonyx
Spessartite
Spodumene
Sugilite
Sunstone
Taafeite

Cairngorm
Calcite
Chalcedony
Charoite
Chiastolite
Chrysoberyl
Copal
Coral
Cordierite
Cornelian
Crocoite
Cuprite
Diaspore
Dravite
Hemimorphite
Smithsonite
Sphalerite
Cerussite
Chrysocolla
Serpentine
Scapolite
Connemara
Verde
Williamsite
Tsavolite
Tsavorite
Turritella
Uvarovite
Vermarine
Wulfenite
Zincite
Eosphorite
Goldstone
Grossularite
Helenite
Heliolite
Hessonite
Howlite
Indicolite
Jeremejevite
Jet
Korite
Lazurite
Leucite
Stichtite
Ulexite
Diopside
Tektite
Titanite
Topazolite
Triphane
Ammonite
Andradite
Anglesite
Apophyllite
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