DIAMOND LEARNING GUIDE
STRUCTURE OF A FACETED DIAMOND:

The lapidary (cutting and polishing) of diamond is indeed an art. Each piece of diamond has a crown, table of the crown and the pavilion. The crown and the pavilion are given adequate facets and the culet is intricately shaped to give proper dimension to the diamond for a higher level of brilliance.
PURCHASING A DIAMOND
Purchasing a diamond has significance in life. One must be aware of what he/she is buying and the detailed information about the diamond. There are 4 C's which is vital in determining the value of a diamond. The 4 C's are Cut, Clarity, Color and Carat Weight of the diamond.
GENERAL CONSTRUCT PATTERN:
The brilliance of a dimond depends mainly upon the cut. The cut indicates how well the light gets refracted and reflected. Diamonds can have a shallow cut, ideal cut and deep cut, In shallow and deep cuts the light is refracted from the crown and reflected from the pavilion. In an ideal cut all the light which enters from crown gets reflected from the crown. This imparts a true brilliance to the piece of diamond.
A diamond rough Shallow Cut Deep Cut Ideal Cut
Note: The arrow indicates the flow of light.

The ratio of the depth and the diameter is vital. This ratio is considered to be ideal when it is approximately 58.5%. The height of the crown and the pavilion, the pavilion facets, the crown facets, their size and shape, the table and the culet are all impotant factors in adding brilliance of a diamond piece.
The ratings of GIA(The Gemnological Institute of America) for cut of a diamond are:
Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor.
CUT
There are different types of cuts that are prevalent in the market and is being used in jewellery.
CLARITY:
It indicates the cleanliness and clarity the diamond. Diamonds have different types of inclussions. Inclussions are the natural imperfections which exist inside the stone. All such inclussions are clearly vissible when viewed under a high magnification level. A flawless piece is considered to be a clear diamond. Inclussions usually hinders in the passage of light. The exterior imperfections of the piece of diamond like nicks, trigons and small pits are called Blemish.
 
  Flawless (Internally) Very Very Slight Inclusions Very Slight Inclusions Slight Inclusions Imperfect (Many Inclusions)
 
As per GIA FL-IF VVS1 VVS2 VS1 VS2 SI1 SI2 I1 I2 I3
COLOR:
Diamonds are available in different shades and colors. An ideal diamond is considered to be colorless although this is very rare and each piece does have some tone or shade of color. A colorless diamond does not inhibit, absorb or obstruct any flow of light and imparts great brilliance to the piece. Such diamonds are more priced as they are rarely available. The usual color grades as provided by GIA are:
  D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
  Colorless Near Colorless Faint Yellow Very Light Yellow Light Yellow
CARAT WEIGHT:
The unit to measure the weight of diamond is Carat and the smaller unit is called cent.
SHAPES OF DIAMOND:
Diamonds are cut in different shapes like Rounds, Ovals, Marquise, Heart, Emerald, Princess and Radiant.
ANATOMY OF A DIAMOND
  • Diameter
    The distance between one end of the girdle to the opposite of the girdle is considered as the diameter of the diamond.
  • Crown
    The upper portion of a cut gemstone, above the girdle is called the crown.
  • Table
    The flat top facet of a diamond is called the table of the diamond.
  • Girdle
    The narrow rim of a diamond that separates the crown from the pavilion. It has the largest diameter.
  • Pavilion
    The lower portion of the diamond, below the girdle is called the pavilion. It is also referred to as the base of the diamond.
  • Depth
    The height of a gemstone, from the table to the cullet is considered as the dept of that diamond.
  • Culet
    The tiny facet on the pointed bottom of the pavilion, below the girdle is called the cullet.
COMMON CUTS OF DIAMONDS
  • Asscher Cut Diamonds
  • Cushion Cut Diamonds
  • Heart Shaped Diamonds
  • Emerald Cut Diamonds
  • Radiant Cut Diamonds
  • Oval Diamonds
  • Pear Shaped Diamonds
  • Princess Cut Diamonds
  • Round Brilliant Diamonds
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